An admission is any statement made by a party to a lawsuit (either before a court action or during it) which tends to support the position of the other side or diminish his own position. For example, if a husband sues his wife for divorce on the grounds of adultery, and she states out of court that she has had affairs, her statement is an admission. Any admission made by a party is admissible evidence in a court proceeding, even though it is technically considered hearsay (which is normally inadmissible). Attorneys tell their clients not to talk to anyone about their case or about the events leading up to it in order to prevent their clients from making admissions.
In Corporations Or Companies. The act of the corporation or company by which an individual acquires the rights of a member of such corporation or company.
In trading and joint stock corporations no vote of admission is requisite; for any person who owns stock therein, either by original subscription or by conveyance, is in general entitled to, and cannot be refused, the rights and privileges of a member.
All that can be required of the person demanding a transfer on the books, is to prove to the corporation his right to the property.
In a Mutual Insurance Company, it has been held, that a person may become a member by insuring his property, paying the premium and deposit-money, and rendering himself liable to be assessed according to the rules of the corporation. In Evidence. Concessions by a party of the existence of certain facts. The term admission is usually applied to civil transactions, and to matters of fact in criminal cases, where there is no criminal intent the term confession is generally considered as an admission of guilt.
An admission is the testimony which the party admitting bears to the truth of a fact against himself. It is a voluntary act,which he acknowledges as true the fact in dispute. [An admission and consent are, in fact, one and the same thing, unless indeed for more exactness we say, that consent is given to a present fact or agreement, and admission has reference to au agreement or a fact anterior for properly speaking, it is not the admission which forms a contract, obligation or engagement, against the party admitting. The admission is, by its nature, only the proof of a pre-existing obligation, resulting from the agreement or the fact, the truth of which is acknowledged. There is still another remarkable difference between admission and consent: the first is always free in its origin, the latter, always morally forced. I may refuse to consent to a proposition made to me, abstain from a fact or an action which would subject me to an obligation ; but once my consent is given, or the action committed, I am no longer at liberty to deny or refuse either; I am constrained to admit, under the penalty of dis-honor and infamy. But notwithstanding all these differences, admission is identified with consent, and they are both the manifestation of the will. These admissions are generally evidence of those facts, when the admissions themselves are proved.]
The admissibility and effect of evidence of this description will be considered generally, with respect to the nature and manner, of the admission itself and, secondly, with respect to the parties to be affected by it.
In the first place, as to the nature and manner of the admission; it is either made with a view to evidence; or, with a view to induce others to act upon the representation; or, it is an unconnected or casual representation.
As an instance of admission made with a view to evidence may be mentioned the case where a party has solemnly admitted a fact under his hand and seal, in which case he is, estopped, not only from disputing the deed itself, but every fact which it recites.
Instances of thing second class of admissions which have induced others to act upon them are those where a man has cohabited with a woman, and treated her in the front of the world as his wife, or where he has held himself out to the world in a particular character he cannot in the one case deny her to be his Wife when sued by a creditor who has supplied her with goods as such, nor in the other can he divest himself of the character be has assumed.
Where the admission or declaration is not direct to the question pending, although admissible, it is not in general conclusive evidence; and though a party may by falsifying his former declaration, show that he has acted illegally andimmorally, yet if he is not guilty of any breach of good faith in the existing transaction, and has not induced others, to act upon his admission or declaration, nor derived any benefit from it against his adversary, be is not bound by it. The evidence in such cases is merely presumptive, and liable to be rebutted.
Secondly, with respect to the parties to be affected by it. 1. By a party to a suit. The admissions of the party really interested, although he is no party to the suit, are evidence.
The admissions of a partner during the existence of a partnership, are evidence against both According to the English decisions, it seems, the admissions of one partner, after the dissolution, have been holden to bind the other partner; this rule has been partially changed by act of parliament. In the Supreme Court of the United States, a rule, the reverse of the English, has been adopted, mainly on the ground, that the admission is a new contract or promise, springing out of, ana supported by the original consideration. The state courts have varied in their decisions some have adopted the English rule and, in others it has been overruled.
3. By one of several persons who have a community of interest.
4. By an agent.
5. By an attorney.
Admissions Are Express Or Implied. An express admission is one made in direct terms. An admission may be implied from the silence of the party, and may be presumed. As for instance, when the existence of the debt, or of the particular right, has been asserted in his presence, and he has not contradicted it. And an aquiescence and endurance, when acts are done by another, which if wrongfully done, are encroachments, and call for resistance and opposition, are evidence, as a tacit admission that such acts could not be legally resisted.
Of Attorneys And Counsellors. To entitle counsellors and attorneys to practice in court, they must be admitted by the court to practice there. Different statutes and rules have been made to regulate their admission; they generally require a previous qualification by study under the direction of some practicing counsellor or attorney. In Pleading. Where one party means to take advantage of, or rely upon some matter alleged by his adversary, and to make it part of his case, he ought to admit such matter in his own pleadings; as if either party states the title under which his adversary claims, in which instances it is directly opposite in its nature to a protestation. See Prote stando. But where the party wishes to prevent the application of his pleading to some matter contained in the pleading of his adversary, and therefore makes an express admission of such matter (which is sometimes the case,) in order to exclude it from the issue taken or the like, it is somewhat similar in operation and effect, to a protestation.
The usual mode of making an express admission in pleading, is, after saying that the plaintiff ought not to have or maintain his action, to proceed thus, 'Because he says that although it be true that' repeating such of the allegations of the adverse party as are meant to be admitted. Express admissions are only matters of fact alleged in the pleadings; it never being necessary expressly to admit their legal sufficiency, which is always taken for granted, unless some objection be made to them.
In chancery pleadings admissions are said to be plenary and partial. They are plenary by force of terms not only when the answer runs in this form, 'the defendant admits it to be true,' but also when he simply asserts, and generally speaking, when be says that 'he has been informed, and believes it to be true,' without adding a qualification such as, 'that he does not know it of his own knowledge to be so, and therefore does not admit the same.' Partial admissions are those which are delivered in terms of uncertainty, mixed up as they frequently are, with explanatory or qualifying circumstances.
In Practice. It, frequently occurs in practice, that in order to save expenses as to mere formal proofs, the attorneys on each side consent to admit, reciprocally, certain facts in the cause without calling for proof of them.
These are usually reduced to writing and the attorneys shortly add to this effect, namely, ' We agree that the above facts shall on the trial of this cause be admitted, and taken as proved on each side;' and signing two copies now called, 'admissions ' in the cause, each attorney takes one.
This entry contains material from Bouvier's Legal Dictionary, a work published in the 1850's.
Courtesy of the 'Lectric Law Library